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Mt. Holly Gardens: A Case Study of Redevelopment in New Jersey

Across the United States, communities are struggling with the challenges associated with neighborhood decline. Practitioners and policymakers are beginning to realize that the task is oftentimes more difficult when the communities facing these challenges are in older suburban areas where: (a) poverty is an increasingly prevalent issue; and (b) the resources and expertise to manage issues associated with poverty and disinvestment that exists in cities are less prevalent.

 
 

2018 Update of the Limited Supermarket Access Analysis

Despite gains over the past decade, limited access to healthy food continues to affect urban and rural communities across the United States. Financing the construction of new supermarkets and the expansion of existing stores is one of the primary strategies to increase access to sources of healthy food in underserved communities. Reinvestment Fund’s Limited Supermarket Access (LSA) analysis is a tool to help investors and policymakers identify areas across the 48 contiguous United States and the District of Columbia that have both inadequate and inequitable access to healthy food and sufficient market demand for new or expanded food retail operations.

 
 

Reverse Mortgages in Philadelphia: Lending Patterns, Foreclosures & Homeowner Experiences

From 2009 through 2016, Philadelphia was one of the most active reverse mortgage lending markets in the nation. With support from the City of Philadelphia, Reinvestment Fund collected and analyzed data on the frequency, terms and geographic distribution of reverse mortgages. This lending analysis was supplemented with in-depth interviews conducted with Philadelphia homeowners, and their heirs, who obtained a reverse mortgage and subsequently experienced a foreclosure – something they never thought possible. Interviews focused on borrowers’ experiences, from the moment they first contemplated a reverse mortgage through the point that they experienced a foreclosure filing, and then through the resolution of that foreclosure process. This work is part of a larger investigation into the potential fair housing implications of reverse mortgage lending in the Philadelphia metropolitan area.

 
 

Childcare Analysis for Metro Atlanta

High-quality early care and learning supports positive development and helps prepare children for success in school and beyond. Quality child care is also critical for families, as it allows parents to maintain employment. With support from the Richard W. Goldman Family Foundation and the JP Morgan Chase Foundation, Reinvestment Fund conducted a study of the supply of and demand for child care in the five-county metro Atlanta region (Clayton, Cobb, DeKalb, Fulton, and Gwinnett counties).

 
 

Estimating Changes in the Supply of and Demand for Child Care in Philadelphia (2017)

In 2014, with support from The William Penn Foundation, Reinvestment Fund conducted an initial analysis of the supply of and demand for child care in Philadelphia to identify areas of the city where targeted investments could help address shortages of high-quality child care. Now in its third update, Reinvestment Fund’s 2017 childcare analysis provides updated estimates to track the change over time in the supply of, demand for, and shortages in child care.  This report presents the results of descriptive and spatial analyses of the child care landscape in Philadelphia in 2017. It details both short- and long-term changes in the supply of, demand for, and gaps in care; the year-to-year changes from 2016 to 2017, as well as shifts since the first analyses were conducted in 2014.

 
 

Mortgage Lending in Philadelphia — Key Take-Aways from the 2016 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data Release

Each year, lending institutions across the country report their mortgage lending activity under a law known as the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA). Enacted by Congress in 1975 and amended several times since, HMDA data are a critical resource to understand how dollars flow into communities to support home purchasing, refinancing mortgages, or making home improvements. Regulators use HMDA for various purposes, which include assessments of lenders’ community reinvestment obligations and adherence to civil rights laws.

The 2016 HMDA data were recently released providing an opportunity to look at the local mortgage lending environment – trends in loan volume, the kinds of loans being made, where loans are made, how efficiently different groups can access credit, what entities purchase the home loans once made, and what lenders are originating mortgages in Philadelphia.

 
 

Understanding How Changes to Keystone STARS Ratings Will Affect Gaps in the Supply of High-Quality Child Care

Since 2014, Reinvestment Fund has conducted an annual analysis of the gap between the supply of and demand for high-quality child care in Philadelphia. In June 2017 Pennsylvania’s Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS), Keystone STARS, initiated changes to the standards for childcare providers across the state.

 
 

Understanding How Changes to Keystone STARS Ratings Will Affect Gaps in the Supply of High Quality Childcare

On June 20, 2017 Pennsylvania’s Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS), Keystone STARS, initiated changes to the standards for childcare providers across the state. Keystone STARS ratings serve as the primary indicator of center quality used by local stakeholders. At this early stage, it is unclear exactly how the changes to the Keystone STARS system will impact the number of rated facilities and the number of ‘high-quality’ centers in Philadelphia, but some changes to the number of centers rated high-quality seems likely.

 
 

Assessing the Relationship Between School Quality and Home Prices Across the Keystone State

For families, schools play an important role in residential decisions. This study examined the relationship between home values and school performance to measure the way schools contribute to home prices in Pennsylvania.

 
 

Estimating the Supply of and Demand for Early Childhood Education in Passaic County, NJ

In 2016, Reinvestment Fund conducted a study of the supply of and demand for early childhood education (ECE) in Passaic County, NJ. Adapting a methodology developed for a 2014 study of child care in Philadelphia, the study results for Passaic County, NJ suggest that over half of all ECE (57%) is provided in state licensed childcare centers, and 27% is provided in high-quality centers. With support from the Nicholson Foundation and Taub Foundation, Reinvestment Fund created an interactive web-based tool to present the results of this analysis, accessible at www.passaiccountychildcaremap.org.

 
 

Philadelphia’s Middle Neighborhoods: Demographic and Market Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Nation of Origin

Middle neighborhoods are neither the poorest nor the wealthiest neighborhoods in a city, typically experiencing neither precipitous decline nor rapid appreciation. In many cities, they account for a significant share of residents and are reasonably affordable to middle income households. This research brief examines conditions and trends in Philadelphia’s middle neighborhoods differentiated by their racial, ethnic, and national origin makeup. A deeper understanding of the dynamics at play in different types of middle neighborhoods can help guide policy and investment approaches to shore up the inherent strength in these areas, and also head off decline that could potentially diminish not only residents’ financial health and neighborhood quality of life, but also Philadelphia’s overall wellbeing.

 
 

Documenting the Influence of Fund for Quality Investments on the Supply of and Demand for Child Care in Philadelphia

Fund for Quality (FFQ) helps providers of high-quality early childhood education in Philadelphia reach more families. In 2015, Reinvestment Fund and PHMC created a survey to be administered for each new seat created through FFQ. This white paper presents preliminary findings related to the increased capacity of FFQ-supported providers, along with select survey responses from parents.

 
 

Estimating Changes in the Supply of and Demand for Child Care in Philadelphia (2016) — Summary Update

In 2014, Reinvestment Fund conducted an initial analysis of the supply of and demand for child care in Philadelphia to identify areas of the city where targeted investments could help address shortages of highquality child care. Reinvestment Fund’s 2016 childcare analysis provides estimates to track the change over time in the supply of, demand for, and shortages in child care. The 2016 analysis was the third in the series of analysis by Reinvestment Fund.

 
 

Growing a Healthy Food Financing Program: ReFresh and Colorado Enterprise Fund

The goal of Reinvestment Fund’s ReFresh initiative is to increase the capacity of the community development financial institution (CDFI) industry to fund healthy food projects by creating tools and resources, offering technical assistance, and helping peer organizations learn together. ReFresh has been an important partner as Colorado Enterprise Fund (CEF), headquartered in Denver, Colorado, has grown its portfolio of healthy food lending. In 2016, Reinvestment Fund and CEF collaborated to take a closer look at some of the ways that ReFresh has helped CEF grow its food lending capacity.

 
 

Evictions in Philadelphia

In 2016, Matthew Desmond published his truly extraordinary study of evictions in Milwaukee, WI titled Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City. Inspired by Desmond’s work we at Reinvestment Fund decided to examine the eviction issue in Philadelphia, PA. This brief includes an overview of select housing market data in Philadelphia followed by a summary of the eviction filings: rates, patterns and areas for further inquiry into the eviction issue in the city of Philadelphia. Eviction filing records for this brief cover the period 2010-2015, inclusive, and originate with Philadelphia’s Landlord-Tenant Court (LTC).

 
 

A Prospective Study of the Spatial and Economic Connections within New England’s Meat Industry

In 2016, Reinvestment Fund conducted the Supply Chain Matrix (SCM) analysis for the red meat industry in New England. Reinvestment Fund originally developed the Supply Chain Matrix (SCM) in 2013 to better understand the food production system and identify opportunities at multiple stages in the food supply chain to promote access to healthy, sustainable food.

 
 

Feeding the Line, Or Ending the Line? Innovations among Food Banks in the United States

Across the country, food banks are looking at their mission through a number of new lenses: health, education and technical assistance, farming, economic and workforce development, business enterprise, and community empowerment and advocacy. Feeding the Line, Or Ending the Line? Innovations among Food Banks in the United States, a new report by Reinvestment Fund and Bank of America looks at how food banks are adopting a variety of approaches within each of these categories to feed the hungry and permanently end food insecurity.

 
 

West Philadelphia Scattered Site Model: An Affordable Housing Impact Study

A study by Reinvestment Fund and May 8 consulting to understand how the scattered site rehabilitation of more than 1,100 affordable housing units has impacted the West Philadelphia neighborhoods in which they are located, and determine whether the approach offers cost efficiencies or revitalizing impacts that differ from developments that produced a similar number of affordable units on a single site.

 
 

On the Edge: America’s Middle Neighborhoods

Reinvestment Fund contributed to a new book titled On the Edge: America’s Middle Neighborhoods. Published by The American Assembly, a collection of authors present new evidence indicating that a category of neighborhoods exists in many cities and surrounding areas that planners and policymakers have neglected. These “middle neighborhoods” are generally affordable neighborhoods with acceptable levels of public safety and schools, but they are in danger of falling into decline if left to market forces.

 
 

Integrated Transactions: An Emerging Focus for Community Development

This paper examines the growing range of development models from projects that integrate two or more sectors. Integrated projects are increasingly a strategy used to deliver deeper impact to low-income communities by connecting a range of critical components from mixed-income housing to health centers to grocery stores.

 
 

Estimating the Supply and Demand for Child Care in Newark, NJ

High-quality early learning experiences support positive child development and help prepare children for success in school and beyond. Quality child care is also critical for families, as it allows parents to maintain employment. To better understand gaps in the supply of child care, and high-quality care in particular, Reinvestment Fund conducted a study of the supply and demand for child care in Newark to identify underserved areas. Findings from the analysis are provided in this report.

 
 

Targeting Investment in the Arts: Part 4

In Baltimore, Reinvestment Fund is developing a strategy to target investment in the arts to low-income communities in Central Baltimore, where it can catalyze and build on other complementary efforts. For one year, our Creative Placemaking Fellow, Rebecca Chan, was charged with the task of developing best practices for financing the arts in distressed neighborhoods in ways that build community among both new and existing residents.

 
 

Targeting Investment in the Arts: Part 3

Artists value the process of remaking space and help reveal the potential for recovery inherent in many urban neighborhoods. In both the redevelopment of discrete buildings and incremental renewal of large districts, they provide entrepreneurial energy to the task of preserving something old through the development of something new.

 
 

Targeting Investment in the Arts: Part 2

In Baltimore, Reinvestment Fund is developing a strategy to target investment in the arts to low-income communities in Central Baltimore, where it can catalyze and build on other complementary efforts. For one year, our Creative Placemaking Fellow, Rebecca Chan, was charged with the task of developing best practices for financing the arts in distressed neighborhoods in ways that build community among both new and existing residents.

 
 

Targeting Investment in the Arts: Part 1

In Baltimore, Reinvestment Fund is developing a strategy to target investment in the arts to low-income communities in Central Baltimore, where it can catalyze and build on other complementary efforts. For one year, our Creative Placemaking Fellow, Rebecca Chan, was charged with the task of developing best practices for financing the arts in distressed neighborhoods in ways that build community among both new and existing residents.

 
 

Investigating Philadelphia’s Uncertified Childcare Providers

Reinvestment Fund’s ChildCare Map provides information about the location, size, and quality of early childcare centers operating in Philadelphia. When ChildCare Map launched in 2014 researchers identified a large number of “uncertified providers”—childcare centers operating in Philadelphia, but not listed in the state’s OCDEL database.

 
 

Investing in Community Change: An Evaluation of a Decade of Data-Driven Grantmaking

In 2014, the Wells Fargo Regional Foundation engaged Reinvestment Fund and Success Measures at NeighborWorks America to jointly evaluate the impact of its grantmaking and related programs from 2003 to 2013, to determine if practices in its approach could be transferred to other regions, and to assess its influence in the field.  The Wells Fargo Regional Foundation has a well-established continuum of grantmaking and technical-assistance programs designed to improve the quality of life for children and families living in low-income communities in eastern Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey. The evaluation examined lessons from 140 grants, totaling $41.69 million, that enabled hundreds of projects in the region and leveraged $231.5 million in direct and indirect neighborhood investment.

 
 

Camden Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 (NSP 2) Evaluation

While many census tracts in Camden were eligible for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Neighborhood Stabilization Program 2 (NSP2), the City of Camden elected to focus its investment activities on a few target areas. Working with The Reinvestment Fund, the City of Camden sought to first understand market conditions and, depending on the causes of market stress, deploy specific strategies to address the issues plaguing its neighborhoods.

 
 

Investing for Community Impact

Presentation by Ira Goldstein, Reinvestment Fund’s President of Policy Solutions, to the Jefferson Education Society in Erie, PA on CDFIs, lending, research & practice.

 
 

2014 Analysis of Limited Supermarket Access

A summary overview of Reinvestment Fund’s 2014 analysis of Limited Supermarket Access (LSA). The analysis offers a look at the national landscape of access to healthy food as of 2014 and changes in the underserved population since 2005. The analysis is part of Reinvestment Fund’s extensive efforts to address the inadequate and inequitable access to healthy foods in communities across the country.

 
 

Philadelphia Residential Mortgage Foreclosure Diversion Program | Report of Findings — Update, 2014

Six years after the Mortgage Foreclosure  Diversion Program’s inception, Philadelphia homeowners continue to face many challenges. Unemployment remains elevated, and the incomes for middle class households, in real terms, have fallen. The rise of mortgage products like the reverse mortgage has the potential to threaten homeownership and equity for vulnerable populations. The Diversion Program remains one of the central protections for all Philadelphia homeowners—especially for the vulnerable populations.

 
 

Strategic Property Code Enforcement and its Impacts on Surrounding Markets

In Philadelphia, the Department of Licenses and Inspections has engaged in a novel and geographically targeted enforcement effort utilizing a 2010 Pennsylvania law (PA Act 90) combined with the city’s property and maintenance code.

 
 

Food Access Market Analysis for Maryland

In Maryland, limited access to nutritious food is a statewide issue that affects both urban neighborhoods and rural communities. In low- and moderate-income communities in particular, the absence of supermarkets results in limited access to healthy food options. The following are results from a study by The Reinvestment Fund aimed at understanding the inequity of access in Maryland and providing a framework for the State as it works to address the issue.

 
 

Approaches to Healthy Shopping and Eating: A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Strategies

This report examines programs that aim to influence individual food choices, provides context to understand the related issues and presents a summary of evidence-based strategies that encourage healthy shopping and eating habits in populations for whom the issue of access has been resolved. Through a review of the relevant literature this document summarizes research findings, offers recommendations for further research—with particular focus on intervention strategies within the personal food environment—and highlights programs that, based on the literature, we think have promise. This research was funded by the Annie E. Casey Foundation under its Civic Sites initiative.

 
 

Reinvestment Fund: Lending, Research and Practice

Presentation by Ira Goldstein, Reinvestment Fund’s President of Policy Solutions to the Women in Real Estate (WREN) on CDFIs, lending, research & practice.

 
 

Using the Market Value Analysis to Analyze Markets, Set Strategy and Evaluate Change

Presentation by Ira Goldstein at the Center for Community Progress 2013 conference on Reclaiming Vacant Properties. Dr. Goldstein presented on a panel  titled “Filling out the Tool Box: Market-Smart Approaches for Dealing with Vacant Houses.”

 
 

The Supply Chain Matrix: A Prospective Study of the Spatial and Economic Connections within the Region’s Meat Industry

This report seeks to identify new areas for lending and technical assistance that would have a direct impact on how a local industry sources its products. More specifically, this report provides tables and graphic illustrations of the potential geographic and economic flow of meat products, as they move through the supply chain. The model does not represent the actual flow of products through the supply chain, but rather identifies economic relationships that would minimize the distance that meat travels from farms to processors (at multiple stages) before it is distributed to wholesale and retail outlets.

 
 

Camden Food Economy Strategy

Presentation made to the Campbell’s Soup Food Advisory Committee as part of Reinvestment Fund’s research on Camden, New Jersey’s food economy. Topics include an overview of Reinvestment Fund’s food-related work in Camden, an analysis of Camden’s socioeconomic characteristics relative to peer cities, and an economic base analysis of Camden, with particular attention to food-related industries and strategies for increasing economic output.

 
 

Five Years of Foreclosure Diversion

Reinvestment Fund’s Ira Goldstein presented data on the 5-year accomplishments of Philadelphia’s Residential Mortgage Foreclosure Diversion Program at the anniversary celebration on June 12, 2013. Richard Cordray, Director of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, headlined the event alongside a homeowner in foreclosure whose home was saved by the program. The event was attended by several hundred people and was covered by numerous media outlets including ABC News and Philly.com.

 
 

Underwriting Supermarkets

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

Healthy Food Options Program Design and Social Impact Measurement

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

PA Fresh Food Financing Initiative: Case Study of Rural Grocery Store Investments

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

PolicyMap and Using Limited Supermarket Analysis in Your Target Market

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

What if Pennsylvania Had Not Had HEMAP?

Reinvestment Fund analyzed Pennsylvania’s Homeowner’s Emergency Mortgage Assistance Program (HEMAP) with support from the William Penn Foundation. The summary findings include that from 2008 to 2010, HEMAP saved more than 6,100 Pennsylvania homeowners from foreclosure. The number of homes saved from foreclosure by HEMAP amounted to between 4.6% and 5.1% of the total inventory of homes in foreclosure. The report also found that the program averted a combined $480 million in financial impact of foreclosures.

 
 

Identifying Optimal Areas for Supermarket Development

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

Market Value Analysis: A Data-Based Approach to Understanding Urban Housing Markets

Chapter on the Market Value Analysis by Reinvestment Fund’s Ira Goldstein in Putting Data to Work: Data-Driven Approaches to Strengthening Neighborhoods, a publication of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The chapter uses Reinvestment Fund’s MVA for Baltimore as the working example.

 
 

Understanding the Grocery Industry

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.

 
 

A First Look: Predicting Market Demand for Food Retail Using a Huff Analysis

Part of training materials prepared for the CDFI Fund and the Opportunity Finance Network (OFN) for the Financing Healthy Food Options initiative. The initiative was designed to build the CDFI industry’s capacity to finance projects that increase healthy food options in underserved communities. Based on Reinvestment Fund’s healthy food financing experience, we developed a curriculum for training workshops and created an implementation handbook advising CDFIs how to underwrite supermarkets and capitalize such initiatives.